Contents

Genel kültür kategorisine 12 Temmuz, 2007 tarihinde eklendi, 11 defa okundu

Contents

1.

Introduction

2.

Advertising in the Schools

2.1 Types of Advertising in Schools

2.2 Conclusion

3.

Advertising to Children

3.1 Bona Fide Educational Services

3.2 Ads and Services Directed to Children

3.3 Directing Ads to those Under 18

3.4 Presentation of Parental Permission Disclosure

3.5 When the Parental Permission Disclosure Required

4.

Toy Ads on Television

4.1 Evaluating Television Ads

4.2 Buying Toys

5.

Joe Camel in Ads

6.

TV-Related Toys and The”I Want That” Syndrome

7.

Foods Targeting Children

10

8.

Could the Ads to Children be banned by the Government?

12

9.

Specific Rules about Advertising to Children by A.S.A.

12

10.

An Ad Review of H.J.Heinz Co.

17

11.

The Children’s Advertising Review Unit

Self Regulatory Guidelines for Children’s Advertising

18

11.1 Principles

18

11.2 Interpretation of the Guidelines

19

11.3 Scope of the Guidelines

19

11.4 Product Presentations and Claims

20

11.5 Sales Pressure

20

11.6 Disclosures and Disclaimers

21

11.7 Comparative Claims

21

11.8 Endorsement and Promotion by Program or Editorial Characters

22

11.9 Premiums,Promotions and Sweepstakes

22

11.10 Sweepstakes and Contests

23

11.11 Safety

23

12.

Guidelines for Interactive Electronic Media

by Children’s Advertising Review Unit

24

12.1 Making a Sale

25

12.2 Data Collection

25

13.

Guidelines with Comments about Marketing to Children

by Direct Marketing Association Inc.

27

14.

Basic Principles about Advertising to Children

by Advertising Self-Control Committee of Turkey

30

Bibliography 32

1. Introduction

Many advertisers view children as a uniquely profitable three-in-one market: as buyers themselves, as influencers of their parents’ purchases, and as future adult consumers. Each year, elementary school children have an estimated $15 billion of their own money, of which they spend an estimated $11 billion on such products as toys, clothes, candy, and snacks. Children influence at least $160 billion in parental purchases .As future adults, children are potential consumers for all goods and services. This study reviews the recent history of advertising to children, spotlights controversial marketing efforts, and focuses attention on the evolving nature of commercial messages directed toward children in the public.

Because of the increase in children’s spending power in recent decades, advertisers have closely targeted children as consumers. New advertising strategies aimed at children steadily proliferate. The toy-related program or program-length commercial, in which a television program is developed to sell toys, is one that has stirred public attention and debates, as have the 900-number telephone services aimed at children. In the 1980s, children got their own TV networks, radio networks, magazines, newspapers, kids’ clothing brands, books, banking, and such high-ticket items as video games and other high-tech products. Other recent advertising tactics include kids’ clubs, store displays directed at children, direct mailing to children and their parents, and marketer-sponsored school activities. Linking their products to educational goals, advertisers have reached into the schools by sponsoring such activities as literacy programs, reading projects, anti-drug campaigns, and communication skills training, while rewarding students for good performance with coupons for products and free meals. This spread of advertising in the schools can be seen as part of a historical pattern toward the commercialization of youth.

In this study the principles,guidelines ,which were set up to prevent the children from the bad influences of the advertisements directed to them , are presented.

Advertising in the Schools

Because children spend 20 percent of their time in schools, advertisers have been eager to pursue school-based marketing in many forms. Although traditionally there have been links between business and education in U.S. , commercialism in schools has recently skyrocketed and has spurred public debate. In 1989, controversy arose when Whittle Communications (now Channel One Communications) announced the test marketing in six school districts of “Channel One” a 12-minute daily news show for students in grades 6 through 12 that included two minutes of age-appropriate ads for products like jeans and soft drinks. In exchange for airing the program each day at the same time for three years, Channel One Communications gives schools a satellite dish, a cable hookup, a television monitor for each classroom, and an agreement to service the equipment for three years. While some state school systems originally said no to “Channel One,” the Consumers Union Education Services notes that Channel One Communications reports its program is viewed in 350,000 classrooms. A further concern is that the presence of “Channel One” in classrooms may be evident more in some neighborhoods than in others. For example, one study in 1993 found that among those schools showing “Channel One,” a disproportionate number are located in areas of high poverty.

Although “Channel One” has attracted a great deal of public attention, in-school advertising takes many other forms as well. According to James McNeal (1990):

In-school advertising is being talked about more, and in a more critical manner, because of the increasing amounts of it and because of the advent of television advertising in schools. (Criticisms of TV advertising in schools seem to be directed mainly at Whittle…because of its intrusive nature and because the firm flaunts its ability to buy its way into schools.) In-school advertising takes an endless number of forms: scoreboards and billboards in athletic areas, posters, pamphlets, book covers, lesson plans, films, and vending machines.

Although some educators defend the use of commercially produced materials as a way of providing useful supplements to the curriculum or as a way of raising funds and building needed bridges to businesses, other educators oppose it, fearing that market values may, for the most part, take the place of democratic values in the schools. Those who defend the trend argue that commercialism is highly prevalent throughout our society and a bit more advertising in the schools should not adversely affect students. Critics of the trend, however, point to increased pressure on teachers’ and administrators’ time as they sort through offers from businesses. Many educators do not want to participate in offering up students as a captive audience.

Types Of Advertising in Schools

The report, which is a follow-up to the earlier report, “Selling America’s Kids” (CUES, 1990), divides the examples of in-school commercialism into four categories:

IN-SCHOOL ADS. In-school ads are conspicuous forms of advertising that can be seen on billboards, on school buses, on scoreboards, and in school hallways. In-school ads include ads on book covers and in piped-in radio programming. Advertising is also found in product coupons and in give-aways that are distributed in schools.

ADS IN CLASSROOM MATERIALS AND PROGRAMS. Ads in classroom materials include any commercial messages in magazines or video programming used in school. The ads in “Channel One” fall into this category.

CORPORATE-SPONSORED EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS AND PROGRAMS. Promotional messages appearing in sponsored educational materials may be more subtle than those in the previous categories. Sponsored educational materials include free or low-cost items which can be used for instruction. These teaching aids may take the form of multimedia teaching kits, videotapes, software, books, posters, reproducible activity sheets, and workbooks. While some of these materials may be ad-free, others may contain advertising for the producer of the item, or they may contain biased information aimed at swaying students toward a company’s products or services.

CORPORATE-SPONSORED CONTESTS AND INCENTIVE PROGRAMS. Contests and incentive programs bring brand names into the schools along with the promise of such rewards as free pizzas, cash, points toward buying educational equipment, or trips and other prizes.

Conclusion

With the expanding presence of advertising targeted to younger and younger children, schools have become involved in serving up students as captive audiences to advertisers. It is time to pause and reflect on the appropriateness of various kinds of connections between businesses and schools, and the influence those connections might have on the integrity of education in a democracy. In light of the controversial nature of the issue, as well as the underlying ambivalence toward it, public discussion and workable policies are needed.

Advertising to Children

According to the Federal Trade Commission documents , Pay-per-call services cannot be directed to children under 12, unless the service is a “bona fide educational service.” Likewise, ads for 900-number services cannot be directed to children under 12, unless the service is a bona fide educational service.

Bona Fide Educational Services

A bona fide educational service provides information or instruction that is related to education, subjects of academic study, or other related areas of school study. Bona fide educational services are narrow exceptions to the prohibition against directing 900-number services to children under 12.

The pay-per-call service must be truly educational in nature to meet this exception. For example, a “homework-helper” line, where a child might get help with a homework question or problem, is the kind of service that might be permitted under the rule. (Of course, such services must be staffed with persons qualified to answer the variety of questions that might arise in typical elementary school homework assignments.)

On the other hand, a service that is primarily entertainment—but has an incidental educational component—is not allowed under the exception. For example, some services might offer children the opportunity to talk with, or listen to a message from, a popular cartoon character or TV star. These would not be considered bona fide educational services merely because they include some factual information in the program. A quiz program, inducing children to call and answer questions in order to receive a prize, probably would not be considered a bona fide educational service merely because some of the questions pertain to areas that might be studied in elementary school.

3.2. Ads and Services Directed to Children

When TV or radio programs have audiences that are more than 50% children under 12, pay-per-call services cannot place ads during or immediately before or after these shows. Similarly, ads cannot be placed in periodicals or publications if more than 50% of the readers are children under 12.

The composition of the audience or readership will be determined by existing data. If data about the audience does not exist or if it does not show that more than 50% of the audience or readers are under 12, then the commission will examine various factors to determine whether the ad is directed to children under 12. These factors involve both the content and the placement of the ad. They include whether the ad is found:

In a book, magazine, or comic book (or any other kind of publication) that is directed to children under 12;

During or immediately before or after a TV program directed to children under 12. This could include animated programs and after-school programs;

On a television station or a cable channel that is directed to children under 12;

During or immediately before or after a radio program directed to children under 12 or on a radio station that is directed to children under 12;

On a videotape that is directed to children under 12 or preceding a movie directed to children under 12 that is shown in a movie theater;

On product packaging directed to children under 12. This includes the packaging of toys that generally are purchased by or for children under 12. It also could include the packaging of certain food products, such as cereals that are eaten primarily by children; and

To be directed to children under 12, based on the ad’s content, subject matter, visual effects, age of models, language, characters, and tone. This could include ads using child stars, cartoon characters, or themes that are particularly interesting to young children, such as Santa, the Easter Bunny, and dinosaurs.

The pay-per-call service itself will be considered directed to children under 12 if it is advertised in the manner described above. Also, the Commission will look at the content of the pay-per-call program, whether it uses themes, characters, language, featured personalities, or anything else that is likely to appeal primarily to children.

3.3. Directing Ads To Those Under 18

Under the Rule, it is permissible to direct pay-per-call services to children between the ages of 12 and 18. Ads directed primarily to those under 18 must have a disclosure that individuals under 18 need a parent or guardian’s permission to call a pay-per-call number.

3.4. Presentation of Parental Permission Disclosure

The parental permission disclosure must be made in the following manner

Television and Videotape Ads

Each letter or numeral of the disclosure must be at least one-half the size of the largest 900 number. The video disclosure must remain on the screen for sufficient time to allow viewers to read and understand the message.

There must be at least one audio disclosure given simultaneously with a video disclosure. The audio disclosure is not necessary if the length of the ad is 15 seconds or less and the 900 number is not stated in the audio portion; or if the 900 number or any other information about the pay-per-call service is not presented by audio— that is, the ad is solely video, and any accompanying sound is unrelated to the pay-per-call ad.

Print Ads

Each letter or numeral of the disclosure must be at least one-half the size of the largest 900 number. When one-half the size of the number would be too small to be legible, such as in classified ads, the disclosure must be in a type size that is large enough to be read, perhaps even the same size as the 900 number.

Radio Ads

There are no additional requirements beyond the general requirements for language, volume, and rate of speaking, listed under the general disclosure requirements.

3.5. When the Parental Permission Disclosure Is Required

The parental permission disclosure must be in any ad that appears during or immediately before or after a TV or radio program where more than 50% of the audience is under 18. Likewise, ads placed in periodicals or publications where more than 50% of the readers are under 18 must include the disclosure.

If data about the audience does not exist or if it does not show that more than 50% of the audience or readers are under 18, then the Commission will consider various factors to determine whether the ad is directed to individuals under 18. These factors are similar to those identifying an ad directed to children under 12. The factors involve both the content and the placement of the ad. They include whether the ad is found:

In a book, magazine, or comic book (or any other kind of publication) that is directed primarily to those under 18;

During or immediately before or after a TV program directed to those under 18. This could include mid-afternoon weekday TV shows;

On a television station or a cable channel that is directed primarily to those under 18;

On a radio station that is directed primarily to those under 18;

On a videotape that is directed primarily to those under 18, or precedes a movie directed primarily to those under 18 that is shown in a movie theater; and

To be directed to those under 18, based on the ad’s content, the subject matter, visual effects, age of models, language, characters, and tone. This could include ads using a teenage star.

The rule does not require any particular language for this disclosure. However, the ad must clearly convey the message that parental permission is required for anyone under 18 to call the 900 number. A phrase such as “must be 18 to call” would not be sufficient. If you are uncertain whether the disclosure is necessary in a particular ad, it would be sensible to include it.

Toy Ads on Television

Toys advertised on television can be an important part of a child’s “wish list” for birthdays or holidays. And television advertisements are an important source of information about toys. After all, they show children new products and help illustrate what these products can do. But some children, especially young ones, may have trouble separating fact from fantasy in ads –that is, figuring out how a toy works outside its imaginary setting or determining whether toy parts shown are sold separately.

To prevent disappointments, we can help the children better understand what they see on television ads. For example, we may explain that toys advertised on TV, like all products, are made to seem as appealing as possible. We also may point out that the purpose of advertising is to sell products, and that not all information about a toy may be included in the ad.

4.1. Evaluating Television Ads

We may help the children evaluate toy advertisements by talking about the following issues:

Toy ads may exaggerate a toy’s performance. A toy on a television ad may seem to make elaborate sounds or move by itself, when it can’t. We may want to talk about how special sound effects, production techniques, camera work, or editing can be used to enhance a toy’s operation. Many ads show toys being used in imaginary settings in ways that don’t represent how they may work in your home. Help the children focus on the part of an ad that shows a toy’s real-life operation.

Toys may require special skills or extensive practice. In some ads, toys may look easy to play with or operate. The truth is they may require hours of practice before they can be used as shown. Remind the children that because of different levels of skills and talents, not all toys are appropriate for all kids.

Toys may not be sold with all the pieces displayed in the ad. We may want to help the child determine what pieces actually come with a toy. Some toys may be shown with parts from more than one package. Others may be depicted in elaborate play settings that we can’t replicate at home. We may tell the children to watch and listen for key phrases like “pieces sold separately” or “batteries not included.”

Toys may have to be assembled. Toys in ads may look ready to be played with. The fact is that many require assembly before play can begin. In some cases, the assembly may be difficult or time consuming. Children should pay attention to whether an ad says “some assembly required.”

4.2. Buying Toys

It’s fun to buy–and receive–toys. Here’s how to make the most of upcoming toy purchasing and gift-giving occasions–and lessen the chances of frustration or disappointment.

Talk to the children about advertising they see on television. Once they own a particular toy, talk about its performance. Does it perform the way they thought it would? What kind of information do they need before they buy another toy? Is another toy a better buy?

Do research before making a purchase. Encourage the child to look carefully at a toy and its package in the store–and to ask friends for their experiences. Try to determine how the toy actually performs, what pieces come with it, and how much assembly is required.

Check the recommended age level on the toy package. This is the manufacturer’s guide to appropriateness and required skill level.

Joe Camel in Ads by Bill Walsh

Most advertisers are moral people, and their advertising is simply a way to publicize their product or service. But when a company advertises poison to young children, we need to draw the line. We need to stop — or at least expose — this scurrilous, immoral, and downright evil practice.

In 1988, Camel cigarettes were in trouble. They were perceived as an “old man’s” cigarette, and sales were slipping. The R. J. Reynolds people knew that most people who start smoking start early, certainly before they’re mature, and usually even before high school. Every year, a million kids under the age of 18 start smoking. According to a study by the University of Michigan, the peak periods for kids to start smoking is in the sixth and seventh grade.

So what these ethically bankrupt scumbuckets did was to create a cartoon character (Joe Camel) to sell their cancerettes to young people. They gave him a face that’s a clear example of the subliminal power of building a character around human genitalia. They dressed him up in cool clothes and put sunglasses on him. And they pumped millions and millions of dollars into the ad campaign (last year they spent 40 million bucks on Joe, up 63% from the year before).

Sad to say, their strategy has worked. Sales of Camels are up (get this!) 8000% among teenagers! That’s not a typographical error — it’s eight thousand percent.

One out four kids aged 12 – 17 say that they smoke Camels.

In a recent brand recognition study, 67% of adults knew who Joe Camel was and what he was selling. Among 6-year-olds, that recognition factor increased to 91%, bringing Joe Camel equal to Mickey Mouse in being recognizable to children.

Even if Joe wasn’t selling poison, the ads themselves are reprehensible. One shows Joe on a beach, with a sexy blonde, and contained Joe’s advice to teenagers on how to be “cool.” (“Run into the water and drag her back to shore as if you’ve saved her from drowning. The more she kicks and screams, the better.”). Joe calls this “cool.” I hope the rest of us would call this “assault.” The ad was run in the National Lampoon and Rolling Stone magazine — publications aimed at teenagers. But Joe Camel is selling poison. That’s bad enough. But he’s selling it to kids. Actually, the R.J. Reynolds people are the ones marketing addiction, pain and death to children. Their cartoon character is just their pimp to lure kids to destruction.

It’s not fair. It’s a scummy thing to do — to use a cartoon character to hook young kids. I mean, I got hooked by the Marlboro Man twenty-six years ago, but I was 18 at the time. Practically an adult. And if the cigarette manufacturers want to try to sell their legal but destructive poison to adults, well, that’s nearly a fair fight. Their four billion dollar advertising budget against our common sense. Marketing nicotine addiction to adults is terrible, but selling it to children is beneath contempt.

One tragedy is that there’s no good way to fight these scuzzbags. Last May, the Federal Trade Commission secretly voted not to ban the use of Joe Camel to sell poison. And although the United States Supreme Court ruled just last month that people could sue R.J. Reynolds for the use of a cartoon character, any court battle will take time and money. Boycotts won’t work, because (oddly enough) addicts need a continuing supply of the product. And besides, R. J. Reynolds is a huge conglomerate, owning Nabisco Foods and much, much more.

So here’s my plan for the R.J. Reynolds people: Just stop it. Knock it off. Play fair. Here’s a deal: We’ll let you sell your poison to adults if you’ll leave the kids alone. Wait until they develop enough intelligence and media savvy to know what it is you’re really selling — and what it will do to them. Give them a break. Give them a chance.

And don’t deny what you’re doing by saying that you’re really selling only to young adults rather than to little kids. Even we smokers aren’t stupid enough to believe that!

TV-Related Toys and The “I Want That” Syndrome

by Gloria DeGaetano

Whether it’s a toy in a commercial or one based on their favorite cartoon character, what children see on television can easily lead to “I want that.” Toddlers and preschoolers are especially vulnerable to TV’s temptations, because they gravitate more to the right-brain world of color, images, and emotion than to the left-brain world of thinking and analysis. When they play with TV-related toys, all too often they simply imitate what they’ve seen on TV, unthinkingly mimicking the seducing visual images.

It is never too early for parents to address this issue with their youngsters. Parents can help kids spot merchandising “tricks,” steer children to toys based on educational or pro-social TV shows, and direct creative play away from Madison Avenue imitation. Here are a few simple strategies to help guide little ones from mindless consumerism to mindful ways to think for themselves.

Help children distinguish the commercial from the program. When programs and commercials show the same beloved characters, youngsters hardly notice the change from telling to selling. Research shows that without adult guidance, children under the age of six won’t understand the selling in tent of commercials, nor will they easily distinguish commercials from programs. When you are watching TV with your child, have him or her jump up when commercials come on and sit back down when the program resumes. Ask children what they think the ad is selling. Point out commercials that are selling toys based on favorite programs by saying, “This isn’t the Power Rangers show, is it? It’s a commercial that wants us to buy toys that look like the Power Rangers.”

Encourage children to think about why they want a toy. Before deciding to get the toy, have your child draw a picture of what he or she will do with it. Then discuss the picture with your child. By developing a visual cue to start from, kids can better articulate what they anticipate from the toy. Then you can discuss the important questions: “Do you want it just because you saw it on TV? Or do you want it because it looks like fun?” This can be an important first step for building resistance and thinking skills for the next popular TV/toy tie-in your child encounters.

Have your child pretend to be a toy manufacturer. After explaining that all the toys are made by someone, let your child pretend to be a toy manufacturer and interview him or her for an important magazine article. Ask questions such as: Why did you decide to make cartoons out of these cartoon figures? When children see the cartoon, does that make them want the toy? Do you have toy ideas for other kids’ shows?

Give your child a reality check. Take your child to see the real toy. When they get to the store, youngsters are often disappointed–“It looked a lot bigger on TV.” If you can, tape the commercial and play it back after your toy-store excursion. Then discuss the difference together. Ask “Why do you think it looked so different on the commercial?” or “Do you think the story is still worth spending that much money on?”

Help children consider what they value. Frequently what children value is not something they saw advertised on a toy commercial. An old wagon bought at a garage sale, a stuffed bunny Daddy won at a fair, a worn, well-used bedtime storybook, are precious because of the memories associated with them. Have your child sort through their toys and decide which of them are special. Yes, some media toys might be labeled “special” and that’s okay. The point is that the children, not the marketing experts, ascribe specialness to their toys.

Limit your children’s viewing of TV shows linked to toys you find objectionable. The theory here, of course, is if they don’t see it, they won’t want it. If your children watch only nonviolent, imaginative, and/or educational television, then toys based on those shows will likely inspire the same sort of play. If you decide to buy one of these TV toys, explain why this one meets your standards. “Beauty and the Beast teaches us that what’s inside a person is more important than how he or she looks. Isn’t that a nice thing to think about when you play with these toys?”

If you can’t beat ’em, use ’em. Even if you limit their viewing at home, children will be enticed to buy all kinds of toys when they watch TV at a friend’s house, when you take them to the mall, or when they go out for fast-food. It’s difficult for parents not to buy at least some TV toys. We can do plenty to enhance children’s creativity and problem-solving abilities using these toys. If you do buy the action figure you’re child thinks he can’t live without, try not to buy the props, and especially not weapons. Drawing the line here enables you to use other, nonviolent props to guide your child toward socially acceptable behaviors.

Encourage your child to use toys in different contexts. Let toy soldiers help make cookies. See if the Power Rangers want to help plant flowers. Fashion dolls could operate a grocery store using packages and cans from the kitchen pantry; with a desk, paper, and pens stuffed animals could become novelists or artists. Put the action figures with the stuffed animals–the animals are the zoo, the figures, the zoo keepers. Put the figures with other media -related toys, such as Barney or Disney characters. Each character can tell the other why their show (or movie) is the best!

Engage in creative play with your child. Research shows that when parents play 10 to 20 minutes daily with their preschoolers, the children are more cooperative and advanced in social skills. I learned this firsthand when my sons were young and were “into” Star Wars. I became Princess Leia. They told me which dress to wear and not to forget my shiny back-patent shoes! (They made sure I looked the part.) As we played, the boys, then ages 3 and 5, directed what I said and to whom. Yet, I could question their motives and they responded well. Two basic things go on when little ones play: the actual fantasy itself and the stage-whispered directions. When youngsters control both while a parent is present, they learn good leadership and group interaction skills. Plus, when parents give up control for only a few minutes a day, children are more willing for them to take back control for the rest of the day!

Read nonviolent, fun books and have your child role-play the story as you read. When your child play acts what the book character is doing, it gives them a chance to use their own imaginations within the security of a predictable story structure. By doing this on a regular basis, parents give their children a supply of non-violent ideas and characters to infuse into their creative play experiences.

Point out other places that can give children play ideas. A trip to the zoo, a walk in the park, time spent with grandparents–a child’s life experiences–are rich sources of ideas for self-expression through creative play. For instance, after a visit with Grandma, encourage your children to use toys, dolls, and props to reenact their favorite parts of the visit. When children realize that their play need not always imitate the narrow scripts of television programs, a vast world opens up to them based on their own experiences and imaginations!

Foods Targeting Children by Judann Polack

Mothers are known for instructing children not to play with their food. But increasingly marketers are encouraging them to.

While tyke-targeted shapes, sizes and colors of conventional package foods are nothing new, food marketers going after the videogame-savvy kids of today are going a step further. A next generation of “interactive” foods are hitting supermarket shelves, in colors, shapes or flavors that magically metamorphose into another.

Kellogg Co.’s Wild Magicburst Pop-Tarts, being introduced this month, feature sprinkles that shift to vivid hues when toasted. General Mills’ Squeez-It drink, which already marketed a color-changing crystal that kids drop into the potion, is now advertising a taste-altering tablet.

New for summer, from Unilever’s Good Humor division, is a Popsicle product called Tongue Splashers, an ice pop shaped like lips, tongue and neck. But “the best part,” according to the marketer, is a gumball hidden inside the tongue that “paints kids’ lips and tongues an awesome hue.”

FOR A NEW GENERATION

“These products are like what Tootsie Pops were to our generation,” said baby boomer Julie Halpin, CEO of Gepetto Group, New York, a kids marketing specialist.

Experts on marketing to kids believe the floodgates are opening for similar food products as children gain clout as consumers.

“Marketers are just waking up to the enormous possibility of kids-targeted products,” said Johann Wachs, VP-strategic planning at Saatchi & Saatchi’s Kid Connection unit, also New York. “As kids become more powerful as consumers, they are being targeted more directly.”

Kids aged 7 to 12 account for $8.9 billion in spending annually, according to Just Kid Inc.’s Global Kids Study, shelling out 26% , or $2.3 billion, of that toward purchases of snacks and beverages alone.

TEENS SUPERMARKET FORCE, TOO

And it’s not only young kids that wield purchasing power. Teens, too, are becoming more of a force in the supermarket.

Julie Klyce, editor of newsletter Selling to Kids, cited a recent Channel One figure that teens account for $58 billion in grocery-store purchasing.

Food companies seeking their fair share of the kids’ lunch money are pursuing innovation full-tilt to stand out.

“Kids marketing in general is becoming more sophisticated,” Ms. Halpin said. “There are more people and more product categories competing for share of mind, so the need for creativity is higher. Ten years ago, cereal and cookies were marketed to kids–now there are banks, computers and software. The stakes have been raised.”

Psychological components also are at work. Denise Fedewa, VP-planning director at Leo Burnett USA, Chicago, which counts among its clients such kid-directed marketers as Keebler Co., Kellogg Co. and McDonald’s Corp., said moms are now more likely to allow kids to eat foods that might once have been considered off-limits.

FOOD FIGHT NOT WORTH IT

“Moms have loosened nutritional controls,” she said, trying to avoid eating disorders in their offspring. “They now believe there are so many battles to fight, is fighting over food really worth it?”

And there’s a payoff for kids in playing with their food, Mr. Wachs said.

“Food is so charged with rules, regulations and canons of behavior that whenever there’s a break from the [food] routine, it empowers kids,” he noted.

Kraft Foods has come up with a cupboardful of kids products–from Kool-Aid and Pebbles cereals to “Rugrats”-shaped Macaroni & Cheese–but hasn’t introduced any shape- or color-changing foods.

“Children like the fantastical because it’s safe and entertaining at the same time,” said Deb Sawch, director of marketing development at Kraft, who cautioned that new bells and whistles and alterations alone won’t sell a food to children.

“Above all, it has to taste good,” she said. “Kids won’t be fooled.”

Because many marketers take the “in and out” approach to children’s chow–meaning unusual products sold for a limited-time, such as holidays–there isn’t always a large ad campaign behind them. But there are exceptions.

General Mills is now running a campaign on national TV for its taste-changing Squeez-It; the commercials use humor, showing an old man’s false teeth flying out of his mouth and ending up in a child’s drink.

The marketer also has been advertising its Go-Gurt, a kids yogurt packaged in a toothpaste-like tube. Both are handled by Saatchi & Saatchi, New York.

Likewise, Quaker Oats has been running a TV commercial for its Dino Eggs, containing “eggs” that hatch in hot water to reveal edible dinosaurs.

Foote, Cone & Belding, Chicago, created the spot, which shows the eggs quivering in a bowl as the resounding steps of an unseen dinosaur shake it–a la “Jurassic Park.”

Although the cool factor allows for word-of-mouth advertising for these foods, Mr. Wachs said paid advertising is not only necessary but can enhance that effect.

DON’T TAKE THE RISK

“Kids are exposed to so many messages” that it’s risky to rely only on word-of-mouth, he said. Besides, “Kids love the sheer bigness of a brand that advertises. It gives them something to talk about in the schoolyard.”

As the younger set becomes more courted by marketers, Ms. Halpin suggests the element of play will be injected into the marketing of other product categories. “What’s happening is a convergence in `kid culture’ overall,” she said, predicting that child’s play will come into play in many markets.

After all, adults play with their food, too

8. Could the Ads to Children be banned by the Government?

The Norwegian government is expected to pass a new law in March that will place a total ban on advertising aimed at children under 12 years of age. The proposed ban would be extended from current restrictions on TV and radio advertising to include all media, including outdoor and print. The initiative follows the completion of a report by a special committee recommending tougher restrictions on advertising aimed at children.

Last November, the Swedish Government produced a discussion document it intends to use in its campaign to persuade the European Union to restrict advertising aimed at children. Sweden, which has taken over the six-month presidency of the EU, already has the most stringent laws in Europe governing ads targeted specifically at children. Under Swedish law, no advert can be aimed at children under 12. That includes ads for toys, food, electronic games and magazines that might appeal to children.

Specific Rules about Advertising to Children by A.S.A.

47.1 : The way in which children perceive and react to advertisements is influenced by their age, experience and the context in which the message is delivered. The ASA will take these factors into account when assessing advertisements.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

47.2 : Advertisements and promotions addressed to or featuring children should contain nothing that is likely to result in their physical, mental or moral harm:

a) they should not be encouraged to enter strange places or talk to strangers. Care is needed when they are asked to make collections, enter schemes or gather labels, wrappers, coupons and the like

b) they should not be shown in hazardous situations or behaving dangerously in the home or outside except to promote safety. Children should not be shown unattended in street scenes unless they are old enough to take responsibility for their own safety. Pedestrians and cyclists should be seen to observe the Highway Code

c) they should not be shown using or in close proximity to dangerous substances or equipment without direct adult supervision. Examples include matches, petrol, certain medicines and household substances as well as certain electrical appliances and machinery, including agricultural equipment

d) they should not be encouraged to copy any practice that might be unsafe for a child.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

47.2a : Advertisements and promotions addressed to or featuring children should contain nothing that is likely to result in their physical, mental or moral harm:

a) they should not be encouraged to enter strange places or talk to strangers. Care is needed when they are asked to make collections, enter schemes or gather labels, wrappers, coupons and the like

b) they should not be shown in hazardous situations or behaving dangerously in the home or outside except to promote safety. Children should not be shown unattended in street scenes unless they are old enough to take responsibility for their own safety. Pedestrians and cyclists should be seen to observe the Highway Code

c) they should not be shown using or in close proximity to dangerous substances or equipment without direct adult supervision. Examples include matches, petrol, certain medicines and household substances as well as certain electrical appliances and machinery, including agricultural equipment

d) they should not be encouraged to copy any practice that might be unsafe for a child.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

47.2b : Advertisements and promotions addressed to or featuring children should contain nothing that is likely to result in their physical, mental or moral harm:

a) they should not be encouraged to enter strange places or talk to strangers. Care is needed when they are asked to make collections, enter schemes or gather labels, wrappers, coupons and the like

b) they should not be shown in hazardous situations or behaving dangerously in the home or outside except to promote safety. Children should not be shown unattended in street scenes unless they are old enough to take responsibility for their own safety. Pedestrians and cyclists should be seen to observe the Highway Code

c) they should not be shown using or in close proximity to dangerous substances or equipment without direct adult supervision. Examples include matches, petrol, certain medicines and household substances as well as certain electrical appliances and machinery, including agricultural equipment

d) they should not be encouraged to copy any practice that might be unsafe for a child.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

47.2c : Advertisements and promotions addressed to or featuring children should contain nothing that is likely to result in their physical, mental or moral harm:

a) they should not be encouraged to enter strange places or talk to strangers. Care is needed when they are asked to make collections, enter schemes or gather labels, wrappers, coupons and the like

b) they should not be shown in hazardous situations or behaving dangerously in the home or outside except to promote safety. Children should not be shown unattended in street scenes unless they are old enough to take responsibility for their own safety. Pedestrians and cyclists should be seen to observe the Highway Code

c) they should not be shown using or in close proximity to dangerous substances or equipment without direct adult supervision. Examples include matches, petrol, certain medicines and household substances as well as certain electrical appliances and machinery, including agricultural equipment

d) they should not be encouraged to copy any practice that might be unsafe for a child.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

47.2d : Advertisements and promotions addressed to or featuring children should contain nothing that is likely to result in their physical, mental or moral harm:

a) they should not be encouraged to enter strange places or talk to strangers. Care is needed when they are asked to make collections, enter schemes or gather labels, wrappers, coupons and the like

b) they should not be shown in hazardous situations or behaving dangerously in the home or outside except to promote safety. Children should not be shown unattended in street scenes unless they are old enough to take responsibility for their own safety. Pedestrians and cyclists should be seen to observe the Highway Code

c) they should not be shown using or in close proximity to dangerous substances or equipment without direct adult supervision. Examples include matches, petrol, certain medicines and household substances as well as certain electrical appliances and machinery, including agricultural equipment

d) they should not be encouraged to copy any practice that might be unsafe for a child.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

47.3 : Advertisements and promotions addressed to or featuring children should not exploit their credulity, loyalty, vulnerability or lack of experience:

a) they should not be made to feel inferior or unpopular for not buying the advertised product

b) they should not be made to feel that they are lacking in courage, duty or loyalty if they do not buy or do not encourage others to buy a particular product

c) it should be made easy for them to judge the size, characteristics and performance of any product advertised and to distinguish between real-life situations and fantasy

d) adult permission should be obtained before they are committed to purchasing complex and costly goods and services.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

47.3a : Advertisements and promotions addressed to or featuring children should not exploit their credulity, loyalty, vulnerability or lack of experience:

a) they should not be made to feel inferior or unpopular for not buying the advertised product

b) they should not be made to feel that they are lacking in courage, duty or loyalty if they do not buy or do not encourage others to buy a particular product

c) it should be made easy for them to judge the size, characteristics and performance of any product advertised and to distinguish between real-life situations and fantasy

d) adult permission should be obtained before they are committed to purchasing complex and costly goods and services.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

47.3b : Advertisements and promotions addressed to or featuring children should not exploit their credulity, loyalty, vulnerability or lack of experience:

a) they should not be made to feel inferior or unpopular for not buying the advertised product

b) they should not be made to feel that they are lacking in courage, duty or loyalty if they do not buy or do not encourage others to buy a particular product

c) it should be made easy for them to judge the size, characteristics and performance of any product advertised and to distinguish between real-life situations and fantasy

d) adult permission should be obtained before they are committed to purchasing complex and costly goods and services.

47.3c : Advertisements and promotions addressed to or featuring children should not exploit their credulity, loyalty, vulnerability or lack of experience:

a) they should not be made to feel inferior or unpopular for not buying the advertised product

b) they should not be made to feel that they are lacking in courage, duty or loyalty if they do not buy or do not encourage others to buy a particular product

c) it should be made easy for them to judge the size, characteristics and performance of any product advertised and to distinguish between real-life situations and fantasy

d) adult permission should be obtained before they are committed to purchasing complex and costly goods and services.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

47.3d : Advertisements and promotions addressed to or featuring children should not exploit their credulity, loyalty, vulnerability or lack of experience:

a) they should not be made to feel inferior or unpopular for not buying the advertised product

b) they should not be made to feel that they are lacking in courage, duty or loyalty if they do not buy or do not encourage others to buy a particular product

c) it should be made easy for them to judge the size, characteristics and performance of any product advertised and to distinguish between real-life situations and fantasy

d) adult permission should be obtained before they are committed to purchasing complex and costly goods and services.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

47.4a : Advertisements and promotions addressed to children:

a) should not actively encourage them to make a nuisance of themselves to parents or others

b) should not make a direct appeal to purchase unless the product is one that would be likely to interest children and that they could reasonably afford. Distance selling advertisers should take care when using youth media not to promote products that are unsuitable for children

c) should not exaggerate what is attainable by an ordinary child using the product being advertised or promoted

d) should not actively encourage them to eat or drink at or near bedtime, to eat frequently throughout the day or to replace main meals with confectionery or snack foods

e) should not exploit their susceptibility to charitable appeals and should explain the extent to which their participation will help in any charity-linked promotions.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

47.4b : Advertisements and promotions addressed to children:

a) should not actively encourage them to make a nuisance of themselves to parents or others

b) should not make a direct appeal to purchase unless the product is one that would be likely to interest children and that they could reasonably afford. Distance selling advertisers should take care when using youth media not to promote products that are unsuitable for children

c) should not exaggerate what is attainable by an ordinary child using the product being advertised or promoted

d) should not actively encourage them to eat or drink at or near bedtime, to eat frequently throughout the day or to replace main meals with confectionery or snack foods

e) should not exploit their susceptibility to charitable appeals and should explain the extent to which their participation will help in any charity-linked promotions.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

47.4c : Advertisements and promotions addressed to children:

a) should not actively encourage them to make a nuisance of themselves to parents or others

b) should not make a direct appeal to purchase unless the product is one that would be likely to interest children and that they could reasonably afford. Distance selling advertisers should take care when using youth media not to promote products that are unsuitable for children

c) should not exaggerate what is attainable by an ordinary child using the product being advertised or promoted

d) should not actively encourage them to eat or drink at or near bedtime, to eat frequently throughout the day or to replace main meals with confectionery or snack foods

e) should not exploit their susceptibility to charitable appeals and should explain the extent to which their participation will help in any charity-linked promotions.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

47.4d : Advertisements and promotions addressed to children:

a) should not actively encourage them to make a nuisance of themselves to parents or others

b) should not make a direct appeal to purchase unless the product is one that would be likely to interest children and that they could reasonably afford. Distance selling advertisers should take care when using youth media not to promote products that are unsuitable for children

c) should not exaggerate what is attainable by an ordinary child using the product being advertised or promoted

d) should not actively encourage them to eat or drink at or near bedtime, to eat frequently throughout the day or to replace main meals with confectionery or snack foods

e) should not exploit their susceptibility to charitable appeals and should explain the extent to which their participation will help in any charity-linked promotions.

(SPECIFIC RULES – CHILDREN)

An Ad Review of H.J.Heinz Co.

Marketer:H.J. Heinz Co.

Agency:Leo Burnett Co., Chicago

by Bob Garfield

Children, as we all know, are stupid. Even smart children are stupid. We ourselves are the proud parents/paymasters/transportation consultants of two extremely smart, extremely stupid children who regularly demonstrate the common sense of yeast.

For instance, small children don’t like to go to sleep. How dumb is that? As for teen-agers, don’t get us started. (Ask us sometime about the National Merit Scholar and Garage Attic episode. It’s world-class.)

This smart/stupid paradox manifests in many ways, and a big one is dietary. It’s mindboggling what children won’t eat, and what they will. It is no coincidence, for example, that children are by orders of magnitude the heaviest users of ketchup.

We are not here to slander ketchup; it is a perfectly respectable condiment. To watch the way kids consume it, however, you’d think it was the Elixir of Life. They will put it on anything, converting any given foodstuff to what is functionally a KTM (ketchup-transference medium).

This is stupid, because a) it obliterates the taste of real food, which, b) no matter what the Reagan administration claimed, ketchup isn’t.

Nonetheless, given how indiscriminately kids use the stuff, H.J. Heinz Co. has decided to cultivate that market still further. The result is a witty, unexpected and most refreshing global campaign from Leo Burnett Co. that discards all the silly old cliches of the genre in favor of savagely funny observations of ketchupness.

“Heinz tomato ketchup allows you to make food taste however you want it to taste,” says the young, male, decidedly unannouncerlike voice-over, atop spare, static shots of a hamburger on a plate. “Two popular options are ketchuppy . . . and even more ketchuppy.”

At this, a hand comes into the frame and presses down on bun, squeezing an obscene quantity of ketchup down the sides of the burger. Then, onscreen and in voice-over, the tagline: “Heinz tomato ketchup. Makes food ketchuppy . . . to various degrees.”

It is a tagline, of course, that totally flips the bird at all other taglines, by simply reiterating the absurd observation in the body copy. All of the five spots do the same, hilarious thing. One shows an empty Heinz bottle with ketchup residue clinging to the insides.

“Some of the Heinz tomato ketchup never comes out. It just stays stuck in there and we can only look at it. This part of the ketchup will never be completely understood. This part of the ketchup has issues.”

Then the tag: “Heinz tomato ketchup. Some of it has issues.”

Maybe the best of the lot shows a ketchup bottle poised over a burger, its contents stubbornly refusing to pour out.

“Heinz tomato ketchup doesn’t mean to keep you waiting. It’s not trying to be rude. But let’s face it: It is rude.”

The tag: “Heinz tomato ketchup. The rude ketchup.”

The rude ketchup? It’s brilliant, certain to delight the target audience that places such a premium on irreverence. Unlike other postmodern, advertising-aware ad campaigns, which tend to be more smart-alecky than clever, this one is at least as much about the product as it is about the worldview of the audience. It’s hip, yes. But it’s also very smart.

So there’s the paradox again. Smart advertising aimed at bright, media savvy, sophisticated young people so dumb they believe in one-stop-shopping for the palate.

The Heinz ketchup campaign: smart advertising aimed at bright young people so dumb they believe in one-stop-shopping for the palate.

11. The Children’s Advertising Review Unit

Self Regulatory Guidelines for Children’s Advertising

The Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU) of the Council of Better Business Bureaus was established in 1974 by the National Advertising Review Council (NARC) to promote responsible children’s advertising and to respond to public concerns. The NARC is a strategic alliance of the advertising industry and the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB). It’s Board of Directors comprises key executives from the CBBB, the American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA), the American Advertising Federation (AAF) and the Association of National Advertisers (ANA). The NARC Board sets policy for CARU’s self-regulatory program, which is administered by the CBBB and is funded directly by members of the children’s advertising industry.

CARU’s Academic and Business Advisory Boards, composed of leading experts in education, communication and child development as well as prominent industry leaders, advise on general issues concerning children’s advertising and assist in revisions of the Guidelines.

The basic activity of CARU is the review and evaluation of child-directed advertising in all media. When children’s advertising is found to be misleading, inaccurate or inconsistent with the Guidelines, CARU seeks changes through the voluntary cooperation of advertisers.

CARU provides a general advisory service for advertisers and agencies and also is a source of informational material for children, parents and educators. CARU encourages advertisers to develop and promote the dissemination of educational messages to children consistent with the Children’s Television Act of 1990. In addition, CARU maintains a clearinghouse for research on children’s advertising and has published an annotated bibliography.

11.1. Principles

Six basic Principles underlie CARU’s Guidelines for advertising directed to children under 12:

1. Advertisers should always take into account the level of knowledge, sophistication and maturity of the audience to which their message is primarily directed. Younger children have a limited capacity for evaluating the credibility of information they receive. They also may lack the ability to understand the nature of the information they provide. Advertisers, therefore, have a special responsibility to protect children from their own susceptibilities.

2. Realizing that children are imaginative and that make-believe play constitutes an important part of the growing up process, advertisers should exercise care not to exploit unfairly the imaginative quality of children. Unreasonable expectations of product quality or performance should not be stimulated either directly or indirectly by advertising.

3. Recognizing that advertising may play an important part in educating the child, advertisers should communicate information in a truthful and accurate manner and in language understandable to young children with full recognition that the child may learn practices from advertising which can affect his or her health and well-being.

4. Advertisers are urged to capitalize on the potential of advertising to influence behavior by developing advertising that, wherever possible, addresses itself to positive and beneficial social behavior, such as friendship, kindness, honesty, justice, generosity and respect for others.

5. Care should be taken to incorporate minority and other groups in advertisements in order to present positive and pro-social roles and role models wherever possible. Social stereotyping and appeals to prejudice should be avoided.

6. Although many influences affect a child’s personal and social development, it remains the prime responsibility of the parents to provide guidance for children. Advertisers should contribute to this parent-child relationship in a constructive manner.

These Principles embody the philosophy upon which CARU’s mandate is based. The Principles, and not the Guidelines themselves, determine the scope of our review. The Guidelines effectively anticipate and address many of the areas requiring scrutiny in child-directed advertising, but they are illustrative rather than limiting. Where no specific Guideline addresses the issues of concern to CARU, it is these broader Principles that CARU applies in evaluating advertising directed to the uniquely impressionable and vulnerable child audience.

11.2. Interpretation of the Guidelines

Because children are in the process of developing their knowledge of the physical and social world they are more limited than adults in the experience and skills required to evaluate advertising and to make purchase decisions. For these reasons, certain presentations and techniques which may be appropriate for adult-directed advertising may mislead children if used in child-directed advertising.

The function of the Guidelines is to delineate those areas that need particular attention to help avoid deceptive advertising messages to children. The intent is to help advertisers deal sensitively and honestly with children and is not meant to deprive them, or children, of the benefits of innovative advertising approaches.

The Guidelines have been kept general in the belief that responsible advertising comes in many forms and that diversity should be encouraged. The goal in all cases should be to fulfill the spirit as well as the letter of the Guidelines and the Principles on which they are based.

11.3. Scope of the Guidelines

The Guidelines apply to advertising addressed to children under twelve years of age in all media, including print, broadcast and cable television, radio, video, point-of-sale and online advertising and packaging. CARU interprets this as including fundraising activities and sponsor identifications on non-commercial television and radio. One section applies to adult-directed advertising only when a potential child-safety concern exists.

11.4. Product Presentations and Claims

Children look at, listen to and remember many different elements in advertising. Therefore, advertisers need to examine the total advertising message to be certain that the net communication will not mislead or misinform children.

1. Copy, sound and visual presentations should not mislead children about product or performance characteristics. Such characteristics may include, but are not limited to, size, speed, method of operation, color, sound, durability and nutritional benefits.

2. The advertising presentation should not mislead children about benefits from use of the product. Such benefits may include, but are not limited to, the acquisition of strength, status, popularity, growth, proficiency and intelligence.

3. Care should be taken not to exploit a child’s imagination. Fantasy, including animation, is appropriate for younger as well as older children. However, it should not create unattainable performance expectations nor exploit the younger child’s difficulty in distinguishing between the real and the fanciful.

4. The performance and use of a product should be demonstrated in a way that can be duplicated by the child for whom the product is intended.

5. Products should be shown used in safe ways, in safe environments and in safe situations.

6. What is included and excluded in the initial purchase should be clearly established.

7. The amount of product featured should be within reasonable levels for the situation depicted.

8. Representation of food products should be made so as to encourage sound use of the product with a view toward healthy development of the child and development of good nutritional practices. Advertisements representing mealtime should clearly and adequately depict the role of the product within the framework of a balanced diet. Snack foods should be clearly represented as such, and not as substitutes for meals.

9. In advertising videos, films and interactive software, advertisers should take care that only those which are age-appropriate are advertised to children. If an industry rating system is available, the rating label should be prominently displayed.

10. Portrayals of violence and presentations that could frighten or provoke anxiety in children should be avoided.

11. If objective claims are made in an advertisement directed to children, the advertiser should be able to supply adequate substantiation.

11.5. Sales Pressure

Children are not as prepared as adults to make judicious, independent purchase decisions Therefore, advertisers should avoid using extreme sales pressure in advertising presentations to childre

Yorum Yaz

Yorum Yazabilmek İçin Lütfen Giriş Yapın.