T.r.

Egitim kategorisine 12 Temmuz, 2007 tarihinde eklendi, 6 defa okundu

T.R.

GAZI UNIVERSITY

GAZI FACULTY OF EDUCATION

ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING DEPARTMENT

BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS THAT OCCUR IN CLASS

AND THE SOLUTIONS FOR THOSE PROBLEMS

Submitted to: Abdullah ERTAŞ

Submitted by: Ferdinay Gülez

97050032320

Ankara, 2001

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

Aim of the study

Problem of the study

Scope of the study

Methodology of the study

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Different Kinds of Behavioural Problems

2.1.1 Two Kinds of Behavioural Problems

2.1.2 Behavioural Problems That Can Be Seen in Three Ways

2.1.2.1 Rarely Seen Expected Behaviours

2.1.2.2 Frequently Seen Unexpected Behaviours

2.1.2.3 Insufficient Behavioural Repertoire

2.1.3 Reasons for Behavioural Problems

2.1.4 Factors That Cause Unexpected Behaviours

2.1.4.1 Teacher Oriented Reasons

2.1.4.2 Student Oriented Reasons

2.2 Principles of Changing the Behaviour

2.3 Change and Control of the Behaviour

2.3.1 Different Ways of Collecting Data

2.3.2 Techniques to Observe and Record the Students’ Behaviours

2.4 Improvement of the Behaviour and Control Strategies

2.4.1 Strategies to Improve and to Control the Class Behaviours

2.4.2 Steps of the Control Process

CHAPTER III EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Evaluation of the Questionnaire

3.3 Interpretation

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

APPENDIX

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Aim of the Study

The aim of this research is to gain knowledge about behavioural problems that all teachers come across in all kinds of classes. We will study different kinds of behavioural problems and the origins of them. And we will find out the solutions for those problems with the help of some principles and approaches.

1.2 Problem of the Study

Our problem is that, teachers often come across the behavioural problems in their classes. Mostly they first try to define the problem of to find the origin of the problem. Some forgets the reality that the problem may be teacher-oriented as well as student-oriented. Instead of spending time on trying to find the causes of the problem, teachers should try to find solutions for behavioural problems.

1.3 Scope of the Study

The scope of our study is to define the different kinds of behavioural problems and solutions that developed to cope with them. In this research, we will see different kinds of approaches to behavioural problems. These approaches try to find solutions by using step by step made by systematic processes. Some approaches require the students to be taken care only inside of the class, some not only in class but also outside of the class, and while some take the students’ individualities into consideration as a principle, some claim the people to be blamed are not students but teachers.

1.4 Methodology of the Study

To do this investigation and to reach the knowledge about origins and solutions of behavioural problems, the methods used in this research paper are searching libraries and finding the sources which are related to the subject and choosing the best ones, and preparing notes and bibliography cards as well as preparing a questionnaire and applying it on twenty Gazi Education Faculty students who took the Class Management lesson to gather data about unexpected behaviours that are encountered by teachers.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS THAT OCCUR IN CLASS

AND THE SOLUTIONS FOR THOSE PROBLEMS

2.1. Different Kinds of Behavioural Problems

David didn’t do his homework given this term.

Sue rarely involves in the lessons.

Frank comes school late at least two times a week.

Mary interrupts the lessons by making noise or speaking with her classmates.

Eddie often fights with his friends at school.

Teachers are often faced with this kind of behavioural problems in their classes. The teachers observe these problems in all classrooms in the world. Some situations need to be taken care in class while some in everywhere such as canteens, refectories, on the way school, home, or even in their play worlds.

2.1.1. Two kinds of behavioural problems

There are two kinds of behavioural problems that teachers have to cope with. The first one is the behaviour that is unsuitable for the classroom conditions. This kind of behaviours prevents the steps of educational processes and may affect the communication between the teacher-student and student-student badly and may also cause some dangerous situations for the other students (Gallagher, 1988). Fighting, altercation, speaking without permission and babyish behaviours can be examples of that kind of behaviours. The second one is the skill problems on the studies or tasks. This kind of problems can affect the students’ academic performance. Not doing his tasks in time, protesting teachers’ rules and instructions and time consuming can be examples of that kind of behaviours.

2.1.2. Behavioural problems that can be seen in three ways

Behavioural problems can be seen in three ways. The first one is students’ behaving the expected behaviours rarely. Second one is students’ behaving the unexpected behaviours very frequently. And finally, students’ not knowing enough expected behaviours (Lewis, 1999).

2.1.2.1. Rarely Seen Expected Behaviours

Students may behave the way their teachers desire, but when the frequency of occurrence is rare, there is clearly a problem. The teachers need some processes that should be utilized systematically which can increase the rate of frequency of expected behaviours. To do this, it is strongly recommended to prepare the necessary environmental conditions.

2.1.2.2. Frequently Seen Unexpected Behaviours

If the behaviours which cause teachers some difficulties seen so frequently or seen for long time periods, we can say that there is a problem which may affect the learning or teaching processes.

2.1.2.3. Insufficient Behavioural Repertoire

The teacher should take the possibility of the students’ not knowing the desired behaviours that are needed for a good social and class interaction into consideration. The teacher should also know that a student’s age and level might not be equally same or fit his sufficiency in knowing expected behaviour. To teach the expected behaviours to students, teachers should not only be a good model, but also prepare the necessary conditions.

2.1.3. Reasons for behavioural problems

The behavioural problems never occur without any reason. If the teacher clearly designate what the problem is, he can be sue that the first step is done. He also needs to research the occurrence of the problem. There may be two reasons for the problem. The first one is the teacher’s not giving the positive reinforcement, and the second one is the teacher’s reinforcing the unexpected behaviours much more than reinforcing the expected ones (Walker, 1999). Students either behave unexpectedly when in the case of not knowing the behaviour or when they are rewarded too much because of their unexpected behaviours. These kinds of behaviours inevitably affect the education negatively. So, according to some approaches we can easily conclude that the behavioural problems occurred in class are not caused by students but by teachers. If we take this approach as a principle, the one who is unsuccessful is the teacher who cannot change the unexpected behaviours or teach the expected behaviours to his learners (Walker, 1999).

2.1.4. Factors that cause unexpected behaviours

The factors that cause the unexpected behaviours may be teacher-oriented as well as student-oriented (Gallagher, 1988).

2.1.4.1. Teacher-oriented Reasons

If the teacher does not use consistent reinforcements for the students’ expected behaviours, i.e. if the teacher says one day “well done” and the other day says the opposite for the same behaviour.

If the teacher does not reward the correct behaviour.

If the teacher’s expectations are much more than the students’ levels.

If the teacher does not tolerate the students’ individual characteristics.

If the teacher cannot be a model for his learners.

If the teacher generally tries to control the class by using punishments.

2.1.4.2. Student-oriented Reasons

1. If the student is extremely dependent to his teacher in his academic studies.

If the student has some concentration problems.

If the student easily becomes unhappy for his unsuccessful resulted tasks.

If the student is too much untidy and careless in his studies.

If the student bothers his classmates and interrupts the lesson too much.

If the student has too much negative attitudes towards his teacher and friends.

If the student is too much interpersonal or intrapersonal.

If the student does not try to motivate himself for the lessons.

Principles of Changing the Behaviour

Behaviour change does not only mean the change of behaviour. It also means to do some preparations, which will not let the unpacked behaviour occur and which will provide the continuity of the desired one. The observation of the unexpected behaviour needs a revision of the class management systematically (Walker, 1999). This system includes both an approach of which principle depends on repairing the students’ problematic behaviour by taking the students’ individual characteristics into consideration, and an approach, which copes with the unexpected behaviour by seeing the reality of fixed peer group behaviour waves.

The principles used to control the behaviour have some similarities with the principles used for education. A teacher has to determine some aims for changing the behaviour; dividing the behaviour into subsets, using a systematic process and finally gathering some useful information about child development (Lewis, 1999). The control of the behaviour includes both the control of the class and the students’ skills in completing the given task. In both situations teacher can organize the environment of the class in order to increase the possibility of occurrence of the expected behaviour.

The principles of systematic behaviour change program that all teachers should know are listed below (Walker, 1999).

Every behaviour is learned, not occurred without any influence by themselves.

Changing the unexpected behaviour depends on the careful class management.

Reinforcement has an important role for behaviour change.

The reasons for behaviour change must be meaningful for the learners.

The uneducational factors should not be added to the process of behaviour change.

Change And Control Of The Behaviour

2.3.1. Different ways of collecting data

Control and the change of the behaviour is the first step of the process. In this step, teacher should gather the data of the students’ behaviours and their studying skills. She should firstly decide which behaviour to observe and define. Either the teacher does observing the behaviour directly himself or a volunteer person does who is expert. If the behaviour is defined clearly it will be easier to observe. Secondly, the teacher should decide which criterion to use. As the behaviours occur differently from the others, it is strongly recommended to use the appropriate criterions for the nature of the behaviour. (Walker, 1999)

There are some different ways of gathering the data.

Recording the behaviour’s occurrence frequency.

Recording the behaviour’s occurrence time.

Defining which time periods the behaviours occur. (Walker, 1999)

2.3.2. Techniques to observe and record the students’ behaviours

It may seem impossible to use the techniques mentioned above in a real classroom conditions, because the teacher may not find enough time to observe while normal educational process is being worked up. But there are also some techniques to observe and record the student’s behaviour in the lesson without any interruption of the while lesson process. (Lewis, 1999) Therefore, the teacher cannot lecture without any observation attempt. The techniques used for observing and gathering data are listed below:

Teacher can use some note-cards. She can write the behaviour that she wants to observe in them and put a tick whenever the behaviour occurs.

Teacher can ask students to note down the time they started their studies and the time they finished. So that the time used for their studies can be recorded exactly. In addition, they can also be asked to note down the time they came to their desks and the time they left.

Teacher can use a stopwatch to find out exactly how much time student’s behaviour takes.

Teacher can ask a volunteer for observation.

Teacher can draw a table according to students’ sitting positions and can put a tick near the name of the student who behaves unexpectedly. (Lewis, 1999)

Improvement of the behaviour and Control strategies

2.4.1. Strategies to improve and control the class behaviours

There are some strategies to improve the control of in-class behaviours and study skills. The most effective one is related to the data about the students’ performance. With this strategy, students can decrease the occurrence of the unexpected behaviours learn new useful behaviours, or increase the occurrence of the desired ones. (Küçükahmet, 2000) Here class management not only includes taking the students’ individualities into consideration but also mentioning the rules and restrictions clearly. (Gallager, 1988) To reach the desired state, teacher should use an approach, which aims to improve the communication between the student teacher and student effectively in order to change the behaviour. With this approach, students will be more comfortable because they will learn that they will be behaved equally. They will also learn that they will need a leader or a guide to learn how to behave.

2.4.2. Steps of the control process

Teacher should not forget the fact that the development and the control of the behaviour is a systematically worked process. In this process, teacher’s task is to define the behaviour exactly, analyse the students’ performance on achieving the behaviour change, and if needed to interfere the process. (Gallager, 1988) The steps of this process are listed below:

Teacher at first should of course clearly state the desired behaviours and rules that students have to considerate.

After this, teacher should positively reinforce the students who behaved the way he want.

The third step is to designate that which students have the danger of not behaving expectedly.

Afterward, teacher should again state these students the rules and behaviours.

In this step what the teacher should is observation to gather data.

Teacher here should analyse the data to decide if the situation is needed to interfere or not.

If the results of analysis requires an interference teacher should decide what to do.

In this step teacher applies the strategy that she have decided.

Teacher gathers and analyse the data about students’ performance.

Teacher here again should make a decision about the continuity of the strategy that she applied by taking the students’ behaviours into consideration.

And finally, when the students reached the desired state, teacher should stop the process. (Gallager, 1988)

CHAPTER IV

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

Teachers often come across the behavioural problems in their classes. A devoted teacher should see the facts objectively. Mostly they first try to define the problem or find the origin of the problem. Some forgets the reality that the problem may be teacher oriented as well as student oriented. Teachers at first should see this reality and then use appropriate techniques for a successful class management. And for a successful class management teachers should increase and decrease the occurrence of the some behaviour of their learners. The behaviours that need to be increased are expected ones that are suitable for classroom condition and the behaviours that need to be decreased are unexpected ones that unsuitable for classroom. In addition to these, teachers should teach the students the behaviours that are not available in their behavioural repertoires.

Unexpected behaviours are learned behaviours like the others. Their occurrence can be increased and decreased by using positive and negative reinforcements. And behaviours cannot occur abstractly from other external factors. Indeed there are factors that affects the before and after behaviour situations.

Direct observation is the best way of gathering the data about students’ behavioural changes. To prevent the behavioural problems, teacher should observe the students’ behaviours very carefully and decide which strategy to use to repair the problem. But before this, teachers of course should clearly state the rules on how to behave to their learner.

CHAPTER III

EVALUATION AND INTERPRETATION

3.1 Introduction

The form of the questionnaire is Lickert Scale. Our questionnaire has ten questions. The questionnaire was carried out on twenty Gazi Education Faculty students who took the “Class Management” lesson to gather data about unexpected behaviours that are encountered by teachers.

3.2 Evaluation of Questionnaire

Choices

Question

Numbers

Totally Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Totally Disagree

Question 1.

% 40

N: 8

% 45

N: 9

% 10

N: 2

% 0

N: 0

% 5

N: 1

Question 2.

% 10

N: 2

% 25

N: 5

% 60

N: 12

% 15

N: 3

% 15

N: 3

Question 3.

% 0

N: 0

% 10

N: 2

% 25

N: 5

% 60

N: 12

% 5

N: 1

Question 4.

% 0

N: 0

% 0

N: 0

% 10

N: 2

% 25

N: 5

% 65

N: 13

Question 5.

% 30

N: 6

% 30

N: 6

% 15

N: 3

% 25

N: 5

% 0

N: 0

Question 6.

% 15

N:

% 0

N: 0

% 45

N: 9

% 0

N: 0

% 40

N: 8

Question 7.

% 15

N: 3

% 40

N: 8

% 35

N: 7

% 0

N: 0

% 5

N: 1

Question 8.

% 45

N: 9

% 55

N: 11

% 0

N: 0

% 0

N: 0

% 0

N: 0

Question 9.

% 30

N: 6

% 50

N: 10

% 20

N: 4

% 0

N: 0

% 0

N: 0

Question 10.

% 80

N: 16

% 15

N: 3

% 0

N: 0

% 5

N: 1

% 0

N: 0

N: Number of the answers that was given to that question.

3.3 Interpretation of the Questionnaire

Generally the results show that the new coming teachers know the principles of these approaches. Most of the students who carried out this questionnaire are senior students who will be teacher in the following year. So it can be concluded by taking the results of the questionnaire into consideration that the techniques and principles are appropriate and sufficient for the very new age of our world. When we look at the evaluation of the questionnaire, we see the expected results. At the same time, the answers that we found are mentioned in our study. But in some answers, we faced to face some unexpected answers. For instance, question 10 (The teacher must be a model for the students to teach them the behaviours that are not available in their behavioural repertoires.), suggest that a teacher should “always” be a model for her/his learners, but in fact this research shows that the lesson should be student oriented for a successful class management.

APPENDIX

Totally Agree

Agree

Undecided

Disagree

Totally Disagree

1. The family does not have an important role for student’s behaviours in class.

2. The student’s age and level does not show his/her behavioural adequacy.

3. Behavioural problems in class occur not because of students but because of teachers.

4. Teachers can always control inappropriate behaviours by using punishment.

5. Behavioural problems must be solved as soon as they occurred.

6. Unexpected behaviours in class are learned behaviours like the others.

7. Most of the students are not aware of the fact about how they should behave in certain situations

8. When the expected behaviours occur, the teacher must use positive reinforcement.

9. The teacher must not reward the student when he/she promises to behave for the other time, as it is wanted.

10. The teacher must be a model for the students to teach them the behaviours that are not available in their behavioural repertoires.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Gallager, P A.. Behaviour Disorders. New York : Lowe Publish Com, 1988.

Ed. Küçükahmet, L. Sınıf Yönetiminde Yeni Yaklaşımlar. Ankara: Nobel Yayın, 2000.

Lewis, Rena B. Teaching Special Students in General Education Classrooms. Upper

Saddle Ri: Macmillan Pub, 1999.

Walker, James Edwin. Behaviour Management. Upper Saddle Ri: Merrill, 1999.

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